Courses on the Thought of Sun Yat-sen remain part of the mandatory curriculum in the schools of the Republic of China on Taiwan, and both the leadership in Taipei and that in Peking continue to insist that Sun's thought remains part of the intellectual heritage of modem China. It will be argued that Sun entertained a collection of remarkably consistent and coherent, if evolving, political and socioeconomic convictions that remained central to his thought throughout his adult life. Some commentators, with one or another political or intellectual bias, seem to have chosen to see only those "Marxist" or "fascist" components in Sun's thought—and to use them to make an invidious case for Sun's "communism" or his "fascism." Marxists throughout the world and "left-liberals" everywhere soon began to exploit that evident conflict and identify Sun's thought with that of equally anti-Marxist movements of the period.