Directly or indirectly, references were made to the impact of the technologies upon the ability to substitute quality for quantity; for the future of maneuver versus fire; for the offense-defense equation; and for stability — as measured by the temptation to preempt and by the ability to control escalation. The conference addressed some Israeli-specific dilemmas: Israel's military doctrine, and its research, development, and production of weapons. Indeed, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) quality for quantity equation is more than familiar to Israelis. Thus Israel, by necessity and not by choice, must look to the possibility of offsetting quantity through quality. Indeed, this has always been part of its competitive strategy. There are important differences between Israel's environment and NATO's. One is that in varying degrees all defense thinking in Europe about conventional war is most strongly affected by the presence of NATO and US — as well as Soviet — nuclear weapons of all sorts.