The Soviets have traditionally blamed the United States (US)-Soviet arms race on the US, arguing that innovations in weapons technology have invariably originated in the US. Evangelista argues that Soviet inferiority in military innovativeness can be explained by the fundamental structural differences in the military research and development systems of the US and the Soviet Union. Soviet industry is generally configured for the mass production of goods that are of relatively simple design. Many Soviet observers have noted a direct connection between the overall technological development of the American civilian economy and that of its military sector. Indeed, the Soviets might attempt to overcome the difficulties entailed in developing microelectronic and computer technologies that are essential for the new conventional and Strategic Defense Initiative -type systems through a vigorous program of industrial espionage of the sort carried out in the late 1970s.