This chapter discusses the dynamics of the 'small-but-capable' navy, whose forces rank somewhere between those of medium maritime powers like France, Britain, Italy, Spain, India, and China — and paramilitary coast guards. Given the limited and generally declining numbers of surface and air units, sea and air surveillance that covers the combat zone will be of critical importance in order to concentrate these limited assets against the main naval forces of the enemy. Surface and air elements can operate together or in loose coordination, but the submarines will be most effective if they function independently. Long-range operations create other problems. Without air cover, they are vulnerable to attack from aircraft. Allowing for organizational resistance, Spector envisages an air operations 'triad' comprising all three platforms — fixed-wing manned aircraft, helicopters, and unmanned vehicles — each with specific roles to play the future battlefield.