This chapter analyzes the nature and evolution of Albanian civil-military relations. One of the most difficult and humiliating periods for the Albanian army started in 1966, when Hoxha employed the Chinese model in order to reinforce party control over the armed forces. The army was nevertheless unsatisfactorily equipped and inefficient, especially after the end of Chinese military aid. Generally speaking, the process of democratic transition is long-lasting and often fraught with uncertainly. The document on security policy of the Albanian military's mission included: guaranteeing lasting peace, preventing war, defending the country, and assisting in disaster relief. The postcommunist Albanian army thus had the misfortune of being forced to act against its own people. Reconstruction and reorganization of the Albanian military education system was pursued with the Western prototype in mind. The army's transformation is expected to be additionally complicated by the clan divisions that have resurfaced in Albanian society.