Along with immigration, trade, and the cultural politics of divisiveness, resistance to multilateral environmental regulation has also fueled the movement, targeted as an affront to national sovereignty. The first global environmental summit, in Stockholm, occurred in the shadow of the Cold War. The Stockholm conference took place in the wake of the first Earth Day and at a time of rising popular concern in the United States and Europe about environmental problems, particularly air and water pollution. One of the more intense political battles at the 2012 Rio summit concerned whether the Sustainable Development Goals should be defined primarily by issue experts or by political actors. Technological and demographic changes, hierarchical patterns of social structure, and consumption-oriented values are co-evolutionary products of Indian society’s dominant historical experience–the political, economic, and social transformations brought about by more than a century of British colonial rule.