The Paris Agreement adopted by the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on 12 December, was the outcome of major battles on a multitude of issues, especially between developed and developing countries. At the COP in Lima in 2014, where the issue of differentiation was also hotly contested, Parties underscored their commitment to reaching an ambitious agreement in Paris that reflects the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances. The Like-minded Developing Countries was the major proponent for all Parties to regularly prepare, communicate and implement their intended Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) towards achieving the purpose of the Agreement. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive NDCs that it intends to achieve. One major victory for developing countries is the recognition of ‘loss and damage’ as a separate article to the Paris Agreement, distinct from ‘adaptation’.