The concern for the security of a nation is undoubtedly as old as the nation state itself, but since World War II the concept of “national security” has acquired an overwhelmingly military character. Most countries spend more on “national security” than they do on educating their youth. The overwhelmingly military approach to national security is based on the assumption that the principal threat to security comes from other nations. National security cannot be maintained unless national economies can be sustained, but, unfortunately, the health of many economies cannot be sustained for much longer without major adjustments. The purpose of national security deliberations should not be to maximize military strength but to maximize national security. The continuing focus of governments on military threats to security may not only exclude attention to the newer threats, but may also make the effective address of the latter more difficult.