Balcerzan’s anthology, eventually published in 1977 after a delay caused by struggles with censorship and economic problems such as paper shortage, arguably marks the beginning of research into translation history in Poland. Still, it is clear that problem of political and ideological entanglements of translation was not a central issue in Balcerzan’s project. Stefania Skwarczynska’s essay deserves particular appreciation; while it is not strictly speaking a work in translation history, it argues that translations should be read as texts of the target literature and understood within their respective target contexts. As regards translation history, this provided Polish researchers with useful conceptual frameworks and methodologies. Thus, observations concerning the historical aspects of translation, which had been only hinted at within the previously dominant paradigm, could now develop into more systematic and more targeted research. Translated literature in Poland has always constituted a significant portion of overall book production, and in the 21st century, in the case of fiction for adult reader.