ABSTRACT

This is the first of two chapters that draw on the contributions of global voices to Age of Empire. European and American nations were creating new colonies, with an overriding confidence in their own philosophical beliefs, particularly about women. By and large, they did not recognize or value the philosophies of colonized cultures. Jonathan Kangwa discusses the replacement of female initiation rites, in what is now part of Zambia, by the London Missionary Society. The cult of domesticity disempowered Bemba women, who were used to playing public and religious roles. Kuzipa Nalwamba explores non-binary gender language in Southern and Eastern Africa. Because neither the culture nor the language was taken seriously, the radical potential to recognize un-subjugated femininities remained hidden in undervalued linguistic-cultural memory. Korea was impacted by Japanese imperial ambitions, as described by Seon Yi Lee. Women converts to Christianity played a significant role in the education of women in rural communities and faced persecution for their support for Korean independence. Grace Ji-Sun Kim follows the Korean story to look at immigration into America. Asian women suffered through racism and through hyper-sexualization. Lee argues that this still bears a legacy and that the voices of Asian American women should be heard.