The German Press Council also has a long tradition, dating back to the era after World War 2, and can still be considered a beacon for debates about professional ethics in the country. In the recent past, however, MAIs at the newsroom level seem to have gained prominence – and we find a large bandwidth of online mechanisms designed to enhance journalistic transparency, as in many other countries throughout Europe. The Italian media accountability landscape offers an interesting case, because it has long been considered a straggler in the European context, marred by its particularly high degree of political parallelism, but it has now been revived by various new initiatives at the company level. Sweden – which is, in many respects, similar to Norway and Finland – can be considered a model country with regard to its institutionalized system of media self-regulation.