Praise is a complex social communication with the potential to either enhance or undermine children’s intrinsic motivation depending on a set of conceptual variables. In this chapter, we revisit the conceptual variables from Henderlong and Lepper in light of research from the past two decades and affirm their utility for organizing the literature on praise and motivation. We conclude that praise enhances motivation and perseverance when it (a) implies that success is the result of controllable, malleable forces (e.g., strategy, effort); (b) minimizes perceptions of external control and promotes autonomy; (c) builds a resilient sense of competence; and (d) provides specific, accurate information about the quality of performance. Within the frame of these conceptual variables, we consider several promising newer directions for research on praise and motivation, such as the focus on more ecologically valid, non-laboratory-based contexts and the emphasis on children’s role in eliciting particular praising behavior from adults.