The collapse of the Soviet empire, exhilarating as it may be for geopolitical reasons, as well as encouraging to the people of the captive nations who may realistically hope for a freer life, brings with it serious aftershocks. Perhaps the most urgent need before the people who have recently undergone a change of regime, as in Romania, is the need to carve out an identity. Writes Vladimir Tismaneanu, the foremost American student of Romania's Communist history: One of the prevailing illusions during the post-communist euphoric stage was that xenophobia and other outbursts of the tribalist, pseudo-communitarian, and mystical-romantic spirit would remain merely a marginal phenomenon. The country's ethnic minorities are sizeable, making up nearly 12 percent of Romania's population. Hence a mixture of ethnic, ideological, and geopolitical considerations all play a part in the complex of attitudes toward Jews and other minorities in Romania. The chapter also presents an overview on the key concepts discussed in this book.