This essay develops a gendered analysis of the experience of conversion to one particular religious perspective, that of modern Orthodox Judaism. Based on interviews with newly Orthodox men and women, our analysis reveals important gender differences in the processes of recruitment and resocialization. Male recruits were more likely to have been active seekers and to have found Orthodoxy “on their own,” while women were more likely to enter through personal contacts. Men emphasized ethical and workplace concerns in discussing the appeal of Orthodoxy; women stressed issues related to family and personal relationships. Men reported higher levels of belief in an anthropomorphic God. Questions of gender roles were more salient for the women. These differences are consistent with gender role distinctions both in the wider society and within Orthodox Judaism. Future research should employ gender as a category in the analysis of all forms of religious experience.