This chapter explores the interplay between several, notably the fear associated with minority status, rapid changes to the social structure, ethnic outbidding in the Sikh political system, the influence of the Sikh diaspora, and political maneuvering by the ruling Indian National Congress party. The fear associated with minority status is hard to overstate, even though Sikhs were comparatively better off than many in the Hindu majority. Punjab was the heart of India’s Green Revolution in wheat during the 1960s and 1970s and is known as the breadbasket of India. The social structure explanations are insufficient alone. The militancy was a small part of the manifestations of Jat Sikh grievances in comparison to the protest movement in the years before, albeit growing more alarming. The tragic events of 1984 were the catalyst that set in motion nearly another decade of escalating violence.