The global population is rapidly aging and people of all genders and sexualities around the world are living longer, healthier lives. This chapter examines the historic, institutional, cultural, and political contexts that shape the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) older adults over the life course, and implications for social work practice, research, policy, and education. Using a critical gerontology lens, the authors review selected areas of social work practice with older adults, including health and wellness; economic security, work, and retirement; and caregiving and long-term care. Throughout, we discuss implications and strategies for improving social work practice with LGBTQ elders, including person- and family centered practice, culturally competent and anti-oppressive approaches, community-based research, advocacy, and policy practice. As with all social work clients, LGBTQ older adults have multiple, overlapping social identities – including gender, race, class, age, ability, nationality, and faith – that intersect with age, sexual orientation, and gender identities. We draw on intersectionality theory in order to better understand individual experiences in the context of socio-structural constructions of privilege, power, and oppression. Finally, we share emerging literature, resources, and tools to help social workers in their practice with LGBTQ elders.