Sexual minority men (“SMM”) is a term that includes diverse identities of men who have romantic and/or sexual relationships with other men. Historically, Western mental health fields have pathologized SMM, although leading organizations have since changed their positions. Intersectional factors including religion, gender, violence, poverty, HIV, workplace issues, criminalization and scapegoating impact the quality of SMM’s lives and create health and mental health vulnerabilities. A deeper understanding of some of the many ways that SMM live their lives and interpret their identities can help social work practitioners elevate their policy, practice and research work with these individuals and communities. For further insights into social work practice with SMM, please read our second chapter (Chapter 7) on SMM in this volume.