It is well established that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of non-communicable diseases and has various psychological and social benefits. Over the past 15 years, significant public health efforts have been made by international organizations and governments around the world to increase population levels of PA. However, many people in high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain insufficiently physically active and do not meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour. Country-level PA surveillance and research are essential to inform health policy development and the planning of interventions at the population level, which is the reason why some international initiatives have been established, such as the Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!). This chapter provides an overview of the global PA perspectives and status in terms of health outcomes, surveillance, policy, and research, with a focus on LMICs. First, a summary of evidence on health outcomes of physical inactivity is presented. We then discuss PA prevalence, surveillance, policy, and research globally, with a specific focus on LMICs. This is followed by a section on global advocacy for PA, which includes relevant information that may help guide public health stakeholders in LMICs in their advocacy efforts. Finally, the chapter ends with a discussion about gaps and opportunities for improving efforts to promote PA in LMICs.