This chapter analyses that the happiness of women—and incalculably that of the whole race, would be much increased, though already enjoying an equal system of morals and laws, by an equality of political rights. It discusses that the inequalities of marriage laws, the despotism of the stronger party, are the odious remains of ancient barbarism. It says that of two persons engaging in the same act, one ought not to be more severely punished than another. It is not true that all the good that can, be derived to women from the possession of equal political rights with men, is the equality of civil and criminal laws. This chapter discusses that it is in vain to sanction by law a civil right, or to remove an exclusion. Under the system of non-exclusion, the one just man giving his casting vote to the equal votes of women, would wipe away from men the opprobrium of the meditated wrong.