In this chapter, we argue that the teaching of science for social justice rests on two propositions. The first proposition is that the opportunity-to-learn science is a civil right (Tate, 2001), which is akin to Moje’s (2007) definition for socially just science teaching wherein all learners are entitled to and deserving of access and opportunity to learn science; and the second is the learning of science creates opportunities for learners to engage in what Ladson-Billings (2009) calls socio-political consciousness or critical consciousness, which positions learners to use their newly-acquired science knowledge to critique, disrupt, dismantle, and transform the status quo, or inequities, within their local, national, and global communities. We describe three pedagogical frameworks that support science teachers’ efforts to teach science for social justice, and we advocate for the adoption of a social justice orientation that allows science teachers to engage in intentional practices.