This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book examines the challenges inherent in the effort to create a college classroom that engages translingual/transnational issues. It explores the rhetorical moves through which students structure relationships with particular language identities, attitudes, ambitions, goals, and visions of future use of English and other languages. The book focuses on how international students perform their linguistic affiliations over the arc of a semester. It explains translanguaging in student writing, considering what kinds of writing assignments might encourage translingual writing among students, and what kinds of philosophical approaches to these translingual assignments instructors might best adopt. The book also focuses on interview responses from three graduate students, showing how students who are able to establish meaningful intersections between disciplinary discourses and everyday Englishes are able to establish translingual, transnational identities in ways that are not well-known in the international graduate student literature.