This chapter explains the motivation for writing this book, the topic taking as its conceptual starting point the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). Though a non-binding document adopted by the UN on 13 September 2007, it provides a pivotal opportunity to bring together Japanese and Australian scholars from a range of disciplines who share a sub-field interest in international and comparative education perspectives focused on the field of Indigenous studies. The chapter concludes with a detailed summary of the structure and content of the book.