In order to understand the implications of higher education for Indigenous Peoples, this chapter will first overview the standards and frameworks of Indigenous education and then discuss the standards and frameworks for Indigenous higher education. As background information to the situation in Japan, trends in Ainu higher education matriculation and retention are provided as well as information on the influence of cultural policy on educational measures affecting the Ainu. A specific analysis follows of how Indigenous education as a collective right of the Ainu has been denied despite Japan’s endorsement of UNDRIP. The chapter then discusses general developments in higher education initiatives in Ainu Studies and specific examples of efforts by local individuals and programmes. The chapter concludes with an outlook for the future, based on the standards of Indigenous Education introduced at the beginning of the chapter. Our general conclusion is that higher education for Japan’s Ainu people varies greatly, with some programmes containing only inchoate elements even Peoplesin countries considered to have advanced Indigenous Education standards, but there is much room for improvement in terms of international standards.