How Indigenous peoples are understood and treated in multicultural education policies and practices varies significantly across societies. The dominant idea of liberal multiculturalism, which focused on diversity and equality of opportunity – at least initially – emerged in response to the impact of transnational migration on the population composition of first world countries. Indigenous peoples in Australia and Japan are both minoritised groups as a result of their colonial experience. This chapter examines how differences and similarities have emerged in the two societies, why, and with what consequence, in order to advance our understanding of the place of Indigenous peoples in multiculturalism debates.