The AfCFTA aspires to be a “deep” trade agreement in Africa, and as such is scheduled to address the topic of competition policy in phase II of the negotiations. There is much merit to such an approach: anticompetitive business challenges are found to be significant both within, and across countries in Africa, requiring more than just a national focus. This chapter reviews the effects of anticompetitive practices in Africa before providing suggestions for how the AfCFTA could develop a framework for competition policy.