The active participation of citizens is increasingly viewed as necessary if large-scale transformations of existing energy systems are to be achieved at the scale and pace required to achieve net zero targets. But how are publics currently participating in energy system transformations? And what implications do new forms of diverse participatory practices have for how society understands and acts on public participation? By exploring contemporary trends in public participation and reviewing how the study of energy participation has been successively broadened since the turn of the century, this chapter advances a systemic perspective on energy participation, drawing on insights from the study of sociotechnical systems and their transformation. This leads to a variety of open questions about how diverse participatory collectives interact, potentially influencing governance processes and coshaping the development of energy systems over time. The chapter concludes by pointing to the study of regional systems of participation as a potential point of departure in future research.