This chapter explains two outstanding initiatives by China, both targeting Europe, but involving major changes at both the Eurasian and global level: (1) the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) launched in 2013, which has remained, as yet, the only long-term vision thought of by a country for itself, its extended neighbourhood and the global economy as a whole; (2) the 16+1 platform, which, since 2012, has institutionalized the cooperation between China and 16 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. While the chapter acknowledges the various gains that come with cooperating with China on developmental and connectivity projects, it also brings into focus the areas where the initiative lacks precision and efficiency, while sometimes failing to build trust and confidence. This chapter tries to figure out the real nature of these goals looking at the widening gap between China’s BRI win-win rhetoric and the factual reality of its growing European presence. It also explores their consequences for Europe/Romania and Asia/India, identifying the challenges and opportunities they might entail.