This chapter gives a detailed analysis of the working of the Chinese mind – in terms of its foreign policy outlook, the narratives circulating around China’s “major-country diplomacy”, strategic vision and how the “Xi Jinping thought” has become enmeshed within the country’s diplomatic affairs. The author argues that China’s diplomacy is based on two core pillars: first, to build a community with a shared destiny, which is inclusive and peaceful; and second, to create sustainable international relations based on mutual respect, fairness and win-win cooperation. Such global partnerships will follow the principle of socialism with Chinese characteristics – an era where China is at the centre stage making the greatest contributions to mankind. The author then goes into the various barriers facing China’s outreach, focusing on US President Donald Trump’s policies and how the “Kindleberger Trap” is looming for China. If China refuses to bear global responsibilities in providing public goods, it might be criticized as a free-rider rather than actually contributing to the existing international order.