The strategically placed, mineral-rich South China Sea is a core interest for China, as elaborated in this chapter. For India, it is perhaps not. But India aims to preserve international maritime freedom and security, which are threatened by China’s hawkish claims to disputed territories in the South China Sea. China’s claims are contested by many of its neighbours, including some of the ASEAN countries. While the situation has not escalated very much, tensions rise when some Southeast Asian countries seek to improve ties with India but cannot for fear of being labelled “anti-China” by Beijing. Making equilibrium with China therefore immediately becomes a highly stratified and complex effort involving the national interests of several countries. It is hard to see India as the principal maker of equilibrium in the SCS. China’s military power is grounded in its strong economic sinews. Also, will naval drills with ASEAN do much more than enhance India’s engagement? No single Asian country can singlehandedly confront China in the South China Sea, where the role of the United States becomes intrinsic as the main upholder of equilibrium.