This chapter deals with a comparative analysis of the dynamics of income poverty and subjective deprivation in the Netherlands and Germany using panel data from the late 1980s and early 1990s. It explains to what extent did the incidence, distribution and evolution of income inequality and income poverty differ between both countries during the late 1980’s and examines what extent do the findings on the dynamics of income poverty correspond to the results on subjective deprivation-poverty. The chapter shows how the major trends in the two neighbouring societies work out empirically using socio-economic panel-data and applying various poverty standards. It focuses on the issue of poverty and deprivation in a longitudinal, comparative perspective. The chapter also deals with the issue of whether a deprivation- poverty line will show less income mobility and more poverty persistence among the elderly compared to income-poverty lines.