This chapter explores theoretical perspectives which address the issue of identity development in adolescence. The Children Act 1989 also incorporates provisions that relate closely to or have an influence on a child’s identity. Most accounts of identity describe a complex constellation of interrelated aspects of identity that contributes to knowledge, self-awareness and an overall sense of self. Traditional theoretical approaches have tended to privilege the internal, process nature of development within which adolescence is seen as the critical period in the establishment of an adult identity. Most recent challenges to the predominance of Erikson’s theory of identity have questioned the primacy given to the individual as the subject of psychological enquiry in Western thought as well as the universality of its application. The concept of ascribed identity is also relevant when considering adoption. Identity must, therefore, be a constant preoccupation, and not only considered at times of change or where a problem is perceived.