ABSTRACT

Misinformation can influence people’s memory, reasoning, and decision making even after they have received a correction – this is known as the continued influence effect of misinformation (CIE). There are a number of factors that contribute to misinformation’s influence, both cognitive – including failures in the integration/updating of information and its later retrieval – and motivational – including the impact of pre-existing attitudes and worldviews. With the rise of the internet and social media, exposure to misleading and/or inaccurate information has arguably become more common, and there is a lack of gatekeepers to ensure information’s quality and veracity; further challenges lie in the formation of echo chambers and filter bubbles. In this information environment, it is difficult for individuals to evaluate information and identify misinformation. This chapter briefly reviews theoretical accounts of the CIE and the challenges associated with the impact of misinformation in the current information landscape. It also discusses how some people may be more susceptible to misinformation effects, and suggests some recommendations on how to reduce the impact of misinformation, touching on both the specifics of how corrections should be presented and broader systemic factors.