This chapter explores agency as motive and action in the context of heritage language maintenance in the South Sudanese diaspora of Australia. The chapter uses empirical data to illustrate the dynamic relationship between individuals’ agency to maintain their mother tongue and pass it to the next generation and the external processes and structures that challenge the realization of these goals. Through the analysis of interview data, the intricate aspects of agency, solidarity, identity and motivation are explored. The chapter contributes to current perspectives in theorizing micro-level language planning by adopting a dynamic approach whereby the interaction between structure and agency is in focus. This approach accounts for agency through a complex spatio-temporal lens, reflecting the de-territorialized nature of language use as well as the continuity and recursive nature of language games over time.