Antonio Gramsci emphasised the centrality of popular education in raising consciousness. The central argument from eco-feminism is that 'a historical, symbolic and political relationship exists between the denigration of nature and the female in Western cultures'. A praxis began to evolve with emphasis on lived experience as the basis of theoretical understanding. A. Gramsci provided feminism with the tools with which to make sense of the personal as political through the concept of hegemony and female-specific forms of coercion and consent. By the 1980s, Arnot was arguing that male hegemony consists of a multiplicity of moments which have persuaded women to accept a male dominated culture and their subordination within it. Local women slowly became more involved in community groups; problematising their everyday reality through a diversity of projects from Hattersley Women Writing to Woodwork for Women, they began to question from a more critical perspective.