This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book argues that contrary to popular perceptions, a quest for better economic opportunities is not the primary motivation for migrants to leave their home-lands. It shows that Turkey adopted a similar attitude towards the refugees and analyzes the political and legal conditions that made such a response possible. The chapter analyses transit countries' responses by examining the extent to which former Yugoslav states of Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia used the crisis opportunistically in order to obtain concessions from the European Union (EU). It reveals the processes and consequences of militarization. The chapter also analyzes the European response to the crisis on its maritime boundaries. It examines consequences of perceiving the migrant crisis as a security challenge. The chapter also examines the EU inadequate response to the refugee crisis and argues that the reaction was consistent with the EU's state of incomplete integration.