This chapter discusses the changing role of military forces as they increasingly engage in such non-traditional tasks as the policing of migration. With the end of the Cold War and a decline in the perception of external threat, many countries have begun to rely to an ever greater extent on using military forces in non-traditional roles. The chapter considers how the line between traditional military roles and other more policing-oriented constabulary duties has become increasingly blurred—and analyzes the challenge thus posed to both militaries and governments. It examines this trend in Europe, particularly the use of naval forces, by focusing on the efforts of individual countries and the European Union over the past several years to address the maritime challenge in the central and eastern Mediterranean. The chapter also examines these maritime migration flows and the implications of using military forces for immigration enforcement in an increasingly securitized environment.