The Russian Federation has noticeably changed trade relations with Brazil since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Brazil has become more important for the Russian trade policy in the Latin American region; however, existing economic and institutional barriers constrain the intensification of the cooperation between the countries. The authors characterize the transformation in the dynamics and institutional framework of the Russian-Brazilian trade and reveal the main obstacles and opportunities for the future development.

The chapter offers the periodization of trade cooperation between Russia and Brazil. The research focuses on the question whether state visits, EAEU-MERCOSUR relations, and BRICS development encourage Russian-Brazilian trade.