This chapter discusses the interaction between archaeology and contemporary migrations in the context of social cohesion, and the ethical implications that follow from this interaction. The products of the archaeological profession – national conferences, the language used in publications and the territory covered in journals and books – are daily reminders of national identity, despite the lack of awareness among archaeological heritage practitioners and indeed among users. After a review of the links between archaeological heritage and nationalism, some thought will be given to the potential of archaeology to create a sense of place and to nurture well-being. Attention will then focus on Catalonia and on the practices undertaken to actively create citizenship with a social inclusion agenda. One of the main emphases of these plans has been the promotion of the Catalan language as a medium for improving social cohesion.