This essay outlines the recent development and basic aspects of the concept of “Public Religious Pedagogy” in Germany. In the German context, the academic discipline that addresses the intersection of religion and education is called “Religionspädagogik”—which I will translate as “Religious Pedagogy”. It is predominantly conceptualized as a theological discipline that deals with matters of the religion-education-relationship in the public sphere as well as in church contexts. Within the public sphere, Religious Pedagogy usually has a strong focus on Religious Education (RE), which is an ordinary subject in the majority of German schools. Against the backdrop of the resurgence of the public relevance of religion(s) in Western societies the concept of “Public Religious Pedagogy” has arisen from the strongly felt necessity that the public responsibility and political dimension of RE should be taken more seriously than it used to be over the past 30 years. However, as the essay shows, references to the public relevance of the Christian faith and to Public Theology in RE discourse go back much further, and offer interesting aspects for present conceptual questions.