Over their life course, people with disabilities have poorer physical and mental health and die sooner than their non-disabled peers. One of the key questions for researchers in this area focuses on whether this difference represents an inequity in health. Health inequities are avoidable and violate human rights. This chapter provides an overview of some of the reasons that people with disabilities are more likely to be exposed to well-established social and environmental determinants of poor health in childhood and as working age adults. It also seeks to outline something of impact that such exposures have on their health. In synthesising the knowledge in this field of research, this chapter shows that that the inequality in health status between people with and without disability results, in part, from the increased risk of people with disabilities being exposed to some well-established social and environmental determinants of poor health. The chapter also outlines some key areas for further research.