In this afterword, the editors refer to the new developments that started taking place in the Rakhine State in Myanmar with the military forces unleashing a new wave of repression on the Rohingya following an armed attack by a Rohingya insurgent group. This led to massive exodus of the Rohingya. At the same time, there was a chorus of voices regarding ‘the threat from Islamic forces’. A new round of instability has started with no resolution of the Rohingya issue in sight, no promise of citizenship, and a continuing nightmare of de facto statelessness with chances of a proper implementation of Kofi Annan Commission Report appearing dim.