This chapter provides an overview of some of the most prominent aspects of a policy debate that has lasted more than 40 years, but it intentionally does not attempt to address all fundraising and spending options that various groups have to influence campaigns. It emphasizes policy history to explain opportunities for entities other than candidate campaigns to raise and spend money in campaigns. By encouraging voters merely to contact members of Congress rather than explicitly encouraging a vote for or against the candidate, issue ads were ostensibly about public policy issues instead of determining electoral outcomes. Electioneering communications include only broadcast, cable, or satellite ads, refer to a clearly identified federal candidate, and must be targeted to the relevant electorate. The chapter presents an overview of those developments and why they are important for understanding Citizens United and its aftermath.