In this chapter, the author discusses two questions: the first is what do we mean by “reality”? The second is who is to decide what is and what is not real? He traces the origins of these questions to the time at which S. Freud abandoned the seduction theory and, even though he continued to affirm that there was clinical evidence that events were a cause for neurosis, he gave priority to the concept of psychic reality. The author argues that the social processes have an inscription in the unconscious and that they need to be included in the analytic endeavour. He describes the links between what is real and the truth. The author proposes different kinds of truths: semantic, syntactical, or logical; pragmatic; consensual or social; expressive and narrative. They are all characterised by their power of conviction.