This chapter begins with definitions of core terms and concepts associated with the adjustment, second language socialisation, and translanguaging of student sojourners in the host environment. After discussing some of the transition issues that have been identified in study abroad research, it shows potential benefits of the adjustment process. The chapter reviews and critiques several of the most well-known models of sojourner adjustment. Drawing on recent research findings, it summarises the pedagogical implications for the preparation and support of international students. The chapter examines the need for two-way adjustment, involving changes on the part of both newcomers and hosts. The chapter defines terms and concepts associated with the adjustment process and drew attention to various factors that can lead to differences in the acculturation and second language socialisation of study abroad students. It describes some of the well-known models of sojourner adjustment and highlighted the idiosyncratic, multifarious nature of study abroad.