This chapter presented the first overview of neuroergonomic research in aviation and its potential benefits for flight safety. Our motivation was to demonstrate the potential of measuring the neural mechanisms underpinning motor, perceptual/attentional and decisional aspects of flying. This review revealed the subtle dynamic of brain activity when facing complex real-life operational situations. Moreover, neuroergonomics studies demonstrate, that fNIRS and EEG can be effectively used in the noisy environment of a flight simulator and more importantly, even in the noisy environment of an airplane by using various signal processing techniques. Thus, bringing us closer to the realization of neuroergonomics-based technology in the cockpit to promote performance, safety, efficiency, and well-being of the pilots, crew, and passengers. Indeed, using this information it may be possible to develop neuroadaptive cockpits to reduce workload and to facilitate the processing of critical information. We, therefore, strongly believe that this approach can be beneficial not only for basic neuroscientists concerned with the understanding of the brain functioning, but also for human factors researchers and practitioner.