Among African Americans, poverty and racial discrimination may increase their risk of homelessness and may also reinforce pattern of coping with racial stress by abusing substances. This chapter presents a framework for analyzing the many factors that affect homelessness among African Americans through an application of relevant theories and the use of specific family examples. In effective work with homeless African American families, some focus must be directed toward barriers to maintaining the desired stage of cultural adaptation while homeless. Cultural supports include the availability of African American-oriented magazines, newspapers, and music; positive Black role models and mentors for providing emotional resources and advice; knowledge of African and African American history and traditions; peer acceptance and approval; and an understanding of the ethnic identity process as applied to themselves.