This chapter explains extremism in East-Central Europe and the former Soviet Union and what constitutes right-wing extremism in the region. It then looks at the communist legacy and closely tied with that, the development of a "victimized majority" mentality. Next, the chapter examines the problems of transition and its impact on the development of extremism and how they, in turn, reflect the difficulties of identifying and dealing with extremism throughout the area. Focusing on three states—Russia, Poland, and Hungary—provides a better understanding of both the specific problems and the difficulties throughout the region. Russia, stretching over eleven time zones, has inherited not only half the population of the Soviet Union but most of its natural resources and scientific talent. Despite its difficulties it remains the preponderant economic and military power in the region as well as a global nuclear superpower.