This chapter explores the meaning of race and ethnicity to employers, the ways race and ethnicity are qualified by—and at times reinforce—other characteristics in the eyes of employers, and the conditions under which race seems to matter most. It makes an effort to understand the discursive evidence by relating it to the practice of discrimination, using quantitative data to reinforce the qualitative findings. Social scientists interpret as evidence of racial discrimination the differences in wages or employment among races and ethnic groups that remain after education and experience are controlled. But although some employers found a diverse work force more difficult to manage, few actually maintained a homogeneous labor force, at least in terms of race and ethnicity. Although some respondents spoke only in terms of race and ethnicity, or conflated class with race, others were sensitive to class distinctions. For black applicants, having the wrong combination of class and space markers suggested low productivity and undesirability to an employer.