This chapter is about children and ‘screen-based’ digital technologies. It considers the recent history of these technologies and children’s relationship with them in their learning both in and out of school. It also explores some of the concerns and challenges that the use of technologies presents for anyone working with children. The chapter covers a range of theories by which we have come to understand technology in learning, such as constructivism, socio-cultural perspectives, and theories of ‘affordances’. The chapter recognises that students of education are now themselves competent users of technologies and have likely grown up with them. From this perspective it suggests that there are challenges in balancing guidance and encouragement with developing a critical position in light of contemporary concerns.