This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book offers a critical perspective on how systemic, institutional and individual forms of oppression reproduce and perpetuate injustice and inequity and examines how issues of justice intersect with environmental degradation, climate change and species loss, presenting an existential threat to humanity’s future. It focuses on the relationship between its area of focus and social justice and/or sustainability education and explores the practical implementation of teaching approaches which are premised on social and environmental justice perspectives. The chapter focuses on the theory and practice of history, geography, science and climate change education respectively to challenge how people think about the world and to support engagement with key social and environmental justice and sustainability issues. It argues strongly for direct experience of the local environment as a site for powerful learning and outlines the importance of children connecting with the natural world.